"Multiple definition of" "first defined here" on GCC 10.2.1 but not GCC 8.3.0

Issue

I’ve had a bit of a look around Stackoverflow and the wider Internet and identified that the most common causes for this error are conflation of declaration (int var = 1;) and definition (int var;), and including .c files from .h files.

My small project I just split from one file into several is not doing any of these things. I’m very confused.

I made a copy of the project and deleted all the code in the copy (which was fun) until I reached here:

main.c

#include "a.h"

int main() {
    
}

a.h

#ifndef A_H
#define A_H

int test;

#endif

a.c

#include "a.h"

Pretty much as canonical as it gets, right? And yet…

$ rm *.o; gcc -g -c a.c; gcc -g -c main.c; gcc -o main main.o a.o
/usr/bin/ld: a.o:/.../a.h:5: multiple definition of `test'; main.o:/.../a.h:5: first defined here
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

WAT 🙁

It was around this time I started questioning my configuration and tried another machine, accessing the exact same files over NFS.

$ rm *.o; gcc -g -c a.c; gcc -g -c main.c; gcc -o main main.o a.o
$ ./main
$ echo $?
0

Oooh no. What did I break on the first machine…

Hopefully my issue is rather that Something Quietly Changed between GCC 8.3.0 (working) and GCC 10.2.1 (failing)? Perhaps the newer version of GCC is defaulting to a newer C standard or something, which specifies different behavior in this area?

Alternatively perhaps it’s configuration-related (this is all stock Debian). Here’s the output of gcc -dumpspecs for both versions:

8.3.0:

$ gcc --version
gcc (Debian 8.3.0-6) 8.3.0
Copyright (C) 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

$ gcc -dumpspecs
*asm:
%{m16|m32:--32}  %{m16|m32|mx32:;:--64}  %{mx32:--x32}  %{msse2avx:%{!mavx:-msse2avx}}

*asm_debug:
%{%:debug-level-gt(0):%{gstabs*:--gstabs}%{!gstabs*:%{g*:--gdwarf2}}} %{fdebug-prefix-map=*:--debug-prefix-map %*}

*asm_final:
%{gsplit-dwarf: 
   objcopy --extract-dwo     %{c:%{o*:%*}%{!o*:%b%O}}%{!c:%U%O}      %{c:%{o*:%:replace-extension(%{o*:%*} .dwo)}%{!o*:%b.dwo}}%{!c:%b.dwo} 
   objcopy --strip-dwo       %{c:%{o*:%*}%{!o*:%b%O}}%{!c:%U%O}     }

*asm_options:
%{-target-help:%:print-asm-header()} %{v} %{w:-W} %{I*}  %{gz|gz=zlib:--compress-debug-sections=zlib} %{gz=none:--compress-debug-sections=none} %{gz=zlib-gnu:--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu} %a %Y %{c:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o %w%b%O}}%{!c:-o %d%w%u%O}

*invoke_as:
%{!fwpa*:   %{fcompare-debug=*|fdump-final-insns=*:%:compare-debug-dump-opt()}   %{!S:-o %|.s |
 as %(asm_options) %m.s %A }  }

*cpp:
%{posix:-D_POSIX_SOURCE} %{pthread:-D_REENTRANT}

*cpp_options:
%(cpp_unique_options) %1 %{m*} %{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{W*&pedantic*} %{w} %{f*} %{g*:%{%:debug-level-gt(0):%{g*} %{!fno-working-directory:-fworking-directory}}} %{O*} %{undef} %{save-temps*:-fpch-preprocess}

*cpp_debug_options:
%{d*}

*cpp_unique_options:
%{!Q:-quiet} %{nostdinc*} %{C} %{CC} %{v} %{I*&F*} %{P} %I %{MD:-MD %{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{MMD:-MMD %{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{M} %{MM} %{MF*} %{MG} %{MP} %{MQ*} %{MT*} %{!E:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!MT:%{!MQ:%{MD|MMD:%{o*:-MQ %*}}}}}}} %{remap} %{g3|ggdb3|gstabs3|gxcoff3|gvms3:-dD} %{!iplugindir*:%{fplugin*:%:find-plugindir()}} %{H} %C %{D*&U*&A*} %{i*} %Z %i %{E|M|MM:%W{o*}}

*trad_capable_cpp:
cc1 -E %{traditional|traditional-cpp:-traditional-cpp}

*cc1:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-cc:%(cc1_cpu) %{profile:-p};:%(cc1_cpu) %{profile:-p} %{!mglibc:%{!muclibc:%{!mbionic: -mbionic}}} %{!fno-pic:%{!fno-PIC:%{!fpic:%{!fPIC: -fPIC}}}}}

*cc1_options:
%{pg:%{fomit-frame-pointer:%e-pg and -fomit-frame-pointer are incompatible}} %{!iplugindir*:%{fplugin*:%:find-plugindir()}} %1 %{!Q:-quiet} %{!dumpbase:-dumpbase %B} %{d*} %{m*} %{aux-info*} %{fcompare-debug-second:%:compare-debug-auxbase-opt(%b)}  %{!fcompare-debug-second:%{c|S:%{o*:-auxbase-strip %*}%{!o*:-auxbase %b}}}%{!c:%{!S:-auxbase %b}}  %{g*} %{O*} %{W*&pedantic*} %{w} %{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{v:-version} %{pg:-p} %{p} %{f*} %{undef} %{Qn:-fno-ident} %{Qy:} %{-help:--help} %{-target-help:--target-help} %{-version:--version} %{-help=*:--help=%*} %{!fsyntax-only:%{S:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o %b.s}}} %{fsyntax-only:-o %j} %{-param*} %{coverage:-fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage} %{fprofile-arcs|fprofile-generate*|coverage:   %{!fprofile-update=single:     %{pthread:-fprofile-update=prefer-atomic}}}

*cc1plus:


*link_gcc_c_sequence:
%{static|static-pie:--start-group} %G %L    %{static|static-pie:--end-group}%{!static:%{!static-pie:%G}}

*link_ssp:
%{fstack-protector|fstack-protector-all|fstack-protector-strong|fstack-protector-explicit:}

*endfile:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{Ofast|ffast-math|funsafe-math-optimizations:crtfastmath.o%s}    %{mpc32:crtprec32.o%s}    %{mpc64:crtprec64.o%s}    %{mpc80:crtprec80.o%s} %{fvtable-verify=none:%s;      fvtable-verify=preinit:vtv_end_preinit.o%s;      fvtable-verify=std:vtv_end.o%s}    %{static:crtend.o%s;      shared|static-pie|!no-pie:crtendS.o%s;      :crtend.o%s}    crtn.o%s    %{fopenacc|fopenmp:crtoffloadend%O%s};:%{Ofast|ffast-math|funsafe-math-optimizations:crtfastmath.o%s}    %{mpc32:crtprec32.o%s}    %{mpc64:crtprec64.o%s}    %{mpc80:crtprec80.o%s} %{shared: crtend_so%O%s;: crtend_android%O%s}}

*link:
%{!r:--build-id} %{!static|static-pie:--eh-frame-hdr} %{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{m16|m32|mx32:;:-m elf_x86_64}                    %{m16|m32:-m elf_i386}                    %{mx32:-m elf32_x86_64}   --hash-style=gnu   %{shared:-shared}   %{!shared:     %{!static:       %{!static-pie:     %{rdynamic:-export-dynamic}     %{m16|m32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-i386.so.1;:/lib/ld-linux.so.2}}}}   %{m16|m32|mx32:;:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld64-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker64;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x86_64.so.1;:/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2}}}}       %{mx32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ldx32-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linkerx32;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x32.so.1;:/libx32/ld-linux-x32.so.2}}}}}}     %{static:-static} %{static-pie:-static -pie --no-dynamic-linker -z text}};:%{m16|m32|mx32:;:-m elf_x86_64}                    %{m16|m32:-m elf_i386}                    %{mx32:-m elf32_x86_64}   --hash-style=gnu   %{shared:-shared}   %{!shared:     %{!static:       %{!static-pie:        %{rdynamic:-export-dynamic}     %{m16|m32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-i386.so.1;:/lib/ld-linux.so.2}}}}   %{m16|m32|mx32:;:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld64-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker64;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x86_64.so.1;:/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2}}}}       %{mx32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ldx32-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linkerx32;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x32.so.1;:/libx32/ld-linux-x32.so.2}}}}}}     %{static:-static} %{static-pie:-static -pie --no-dynamic-linker -z text}} %{shared: -Bsymbolic}}

*lib:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{pthread:-lpthread} %{shared:-lc}    %{!shared:%{profile:-lc_p}%{!profile:-lc}};:%{shared:-lc}    %{!shared:%{profile:-lc_p}%{!profile:-lc}} %{!static: -ldl}}

*link_gomp:


*libgcc:
%{static|static-libgcc|static-pie:-lgcc -lgcc_eh}%{!static:%{!static-libgcc:%{!static-pie:%{!shared-libgcc:-lgcc --push-state --as-needed -lgcc_s --pop-state}%{shared-libgcc:-lgcc_s%{!shared: -lgcc}}}}}

*startfile:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{shared:;      pg|p|profile:%{static-pie:grcrt1.o%s;:gcrt1.o%s};      static:crt1.o%s;      static-pie:rcrt1.o%s;      !no-pie:Scrt1.o%s;      :crt1.o%s}    crti.o%s    %{static:crtbeginT.o%s;      shared|static-pie|!no-pie:crtbeginS.o%s;      :crtbegin.o%s}    %{fvtable-verify=none:%s;      fvtable-verify=preinit:vtv_start_preinit.o%s;      fvtable-verify=std:vtv_start.o%s}    %{fopenacc|fopenmp:crtoffloadbegin%O%s};:%{shared: crtbegin_so%O%s;:  %{static: crtbegin_static%O%s;: crtbegin_dynamic%O%s}}}

*cross_compile:
0

*version:
8.3.0

*multilib:
. !m32 !m64 !mx32;32:../lib32:i386-linux-gnu m32 !m64 !mx32;64:../lib:x86_64-linux-gnu !m32 m64 !mx32;x32:../libx32:x86_64-linux-gnux32 !m32 !m64 mx32;

*multilib_defaults:
m64

*multilib_extra:


*multilib_matches:
m32 m32;m64 m64;mx32 mx32;

*multilib_exclusions:


*multilib_options:
m32/m64/mx32

*multilib_reuse:


*linker:
collect2

*linker_plugin_file:


*lto_wrapper:


*lto_gcc:


*post_link:


*link_libgcc:
%D

*md_exec_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix_1:


*startfile_prefix_spec:


*sysroot_spec:
--sysroot=%R

*sysroot_suffix_spec:


*sysroot_hdrs_suffix_spec:


*self_spec:


*cc1_cpu:
%{march=native:%>march=native %:local_cpu_detect(arch)   %{!mtune=*:%>mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}} %{mtune=native:%>mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}

*link_command:
%{!fsyntax-only:%{!c:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!E:%{!S:    %(linker) %{!fno-use-linker-plugin:%{!fno-lto:     -plugin %(linker_plugin_file)     -plugin-opt=%(lto_wrapper)     -plugin-opt=-fresolution=%u.res     %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%:pass-through-libs(%(link_gcc_c_sequence))}}     }}%{flto|flto=*:%<fcompare-debug*}     %{flto} %{fno-lto} %{flto=*} %l %{static|shared|r:;!no-pie:-pie} %{fuse-ld=*:-fuse-ld=%*}  %{gz|gz=zlib:--compress-debug-sections=zlib} %{gz=none:--compress-debug-sections=none} %{gz=zlib-gnu:--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu} %X %{o*} %{e*} %{N} %{n} %{r}    %{s} %{t} %{u*} %{z} %{Z} %{!nostdlib:%{!nostartfiles:%S}}     %{static|no-pie|static-pie:} %{L*} %(mfwrap) %(link_libgcc) %{fvtable-verify=none:} %{fvtable-verify=std:   %e-fvtable-verify=std is not supported in this configuration} %{fvtable-verify=preinit:   %e-fvtable-verify=preinit is not supported in this configuration} %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%{%:sanitize(address):%{!shared:libasan_preinit%O%s} %{static-libasan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -lasan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-libasan:-lasan}}     %{%:sanitize(thread):%{!shared:libtsan_preinit%O%s} %{static-libtsan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -ltsan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-libtsan:-ltsan}}     %{%:sanitize(leak):%{!shared:liblsan_preinit%O%s} %{static-liblsan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -llsan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-liblsan:-llsan}}}} %o %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%{mmpx:%{fcheck-pointer-bounds:    %{static:--whole-archive -lmpx --no-whole-archive %:include(libmpx.spec)%(link_libmpx)}    %{!static:%{static-libmpx:-Bstatic --whole-archive}    %{!static-libmpx:--push-state --no-as-needed} -lmpx     %{!static-libmpx:--pop-state}     %{static-libmpx:--no-whole-archive -Bdynamic %:include(libmpx.spec)%(link_libmpx)}}}}%{mmpx:%{fcheck-pointer-bounds:%{!fno-chkp-use-wrappers:    %{static:-lmpxwrappers}    %{!static:%{static-libmpxwrappers:-Bstatic}    -lmpxwrappers %{static-libmpxwrappers: -Bdynamic}}}}}}} %{mmpx:%{fcheck-pointer-bounds:%{!static:%{m16|m32|mx32:;:-z bndplt }}}}     %{fopenacc|fopenmp|%:gt(%{ftree-parallelize-loops=*:%*} 1):        %:include(libgomp.spec)%(link_gomp)}    %{fgnu-tm:%:include(libitm.spec)%(link_itm)}    %(mflib)  %{fsplit-stack: --wrap=pthread_create}    %{fprofile-arcs|fprofile-generate*|coverage:-lgcov} %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%{%:sanitize(address): %{static-libasan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libasan)}    %{static:%ecannot specify -static with -fsanitize=address}}    %{%:sanitize(thread): %{static-libtsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libtsan)}    %{static:%ecannot specify -static with -fsanitize=thread}}    %{%:sanitize(undefined):%{static-libubsan:-Bstatic} -lubsan %{static-libubsan:-Bdynamic} %{static-libubsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libubsan)}}    %{%:sanitize(leak): %{static-liblsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_liblsan)}}}}     %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%(link_ssp) %(link_gcc_c_sequence)}}    %{!nostdlib:%{!nostartfiles:%E}} %{T*}  
%(post_link) }}}}}}

10.2.1:

$ gcc --version
gcc (Debian 10.2.1-6) 10.2.1 20210110
Copyright (C) 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

$ gcc -dumpspecs
*asm:
%{m16|m32:--32}  %{m16|m32|mx32:;:--64}  %{mx32:--x32}  %{msse2avx:%{!mavx:-msse2avx}}

*asm_debug:
%{%:debug-level-gt(0):%{gstabs*:--gstabs}%{!gstabs*:%{g*:--gdwarf2}}} %{fdebug-prefix-map=*:--debug-prefix-map %*}

*asm_final:
%{gsplit-dwarf: 
   objcopy --extract-dwo     %{c:%{o*:%*}%{!o*:%b%O}}%{!c:%U%O}      %{c:%{o*:%:replace-extension(%{o*:%*} .dwo)}%{!o*:%b.dwo}}%{!c:%b.dwo} 
   objcopy --strip-dwo       %{c:%{o*:%*}%{!o*:%b%O}}%{!c:%U%O}     }

*asm_options:
%{-target-help:%:print-asm-header()} %{v} %{w:-W} %{I*}  %{gz|gz=zlib:--compress-debug-sections=zlib} %{gz=none:--compress-debug-sections=none} %{gz=zlib-gnu:--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu} %a %Y %{c:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o %w%b%O}}%{!c:-o %d%w%u%O}

*invoke_as:
%{!fwpa*:   %{fcompare-debug=*|fdump-final-insns=*:%:compare-debug-dump-opt()}   %{!S:-o %|.s |
 as %(asm_options) %m.s %A }  }

*cpp:
%{posix:-D_POSIX_SOURCE} %{pthread:-D_REENTRANT}

*cpp_options:
%(cpp_unique_options) %1 %{m*} %{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{W*&pedantic*} %{w} %{f*} %{g*:%{%:debug-level-gt(0):%{g*} %{!fno-working-directory:-fworking-directory}}} %{O*} %{undef} %{save-temps*:-fpch-preprocess} %(distro_defaults)

*cpp_debug_options:
%{d*}

*cpp_unique_options:
%{!Q:-quiet} %{nostdinc*} %{C} %{CC} %{v} %@{I*&F*} %{P} %I %{MD:-MD %{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{MMD:-MMD %{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{M} %{MM} %{MF*} %{MG} %{MP} %{MQ*} %{MT*} %{!E:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!MT:%{!MQ:%{MD|MMD:%{o*:-MQ %*}}}}}}} %{remap} %{g3|ggdb3|gstabs3|gxcoff3|gvms3:-dD} %{!iplugindir*:%{fplugin*:%:find-plugindir()}} %{H} %C %{D*&U*&A*} %{i*} %Z %i %{E|M|MM:%W{o*}}

*trad_capable_cpp:
cc1 -E %{traditional|traditional-cpp:-traditional-cpp}

*cc1:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-cc:%(cc1_cpu) %{profile:-p};:%(cc1_cpu) %{profile:-p} %{!mglibc:%{!muclibc:%{!mbionic: -mbionic}}} %{!fno-pic:%{!fno-PIC:%{!fpic:%{!fPIC: -fPIC}}}}}

*cc1_options:
%{pg:%{fomit-frame-pointer:%e-pg and -fomit-frame-pointer are incompatible}} %{!iplugindir*:%{fplugin*:%:find-plugindir()}} %1 %{!Q:-quiet} %{!dumpbase:-dumpbase %B} %{d*} %{m*} %{aux-info*} %{fcompare-debug-second:%:compare-debug-auxbase-opt(%b)}  %{!fcompare-debug-second:%{c|S:%{o*:-auxbase-strip %*}%{!o*:-auxbase %b}}}%{!c:%{!S:-auxbase %b}}  %{g*} %{O*} %{W*&pedantic*} %{w} %{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{v:-version} %{pg:-p} %{p} %{f*} %{undef} %{Qn:-fno-ident} %{Qy:} %{-help:--help} %{-target-help:--target-help} %{-version:--version} %{-help=*:--help=%*} %{!fsyntax-only:%{S:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o %b.s}}} %{fsyntax-only:-o %j} %{-param*} %{coverage:-fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage} %{fprofile-arcs|fprofile-generate*|coverage:   %{!fprofile-update=single:     %{pthread:-fprofile-update=prefer-atomic}}}

*cc1plus:


*link_gcc_c_sequence:
%{static|static-pie:--start-group} %G %{!nolibc:%L}    %{static|static-pie:--end-group}%{!static:%{!static-pie:%G}}

*distro_defaults:
%{!fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables:-fasynchronous-unwind-tables}

*link_ssp:
%{fstack-protector|fstack-protector-all|fstack-protector-strong|fstack-protector-explicit:}

*endfile:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{Ofast|ffast-math|funsafe-math-optimizations:crtfastmath.o%s}    %{mpc32:crtprec32.o%s}    %{mpc64:crtprec64.o%s}    %{mpc80:crtprec80.o%s} %{!static:%{fvtable-verify=none:%s;      fvtable-verify=preinit:vtv_end_preinit.o%s;      fvtable-verify=std:vtv_end.o%s}}    %{static:crtend.o%s;      shared|static-pie|!no-pie:crtendS.o%s;      :crtend.o%s} crtn.o%s %{fopenacc|fopenmp:crtoffloadend%O%s};:%{Ofast|ffast-math|funsafe-math-optimizations:crtfastmath.o%s}    %{mpc32:crtprec32.o%s}    %{mpc64:crtprec64.o%s}    %{mpc80:crtprec80.o%s} %{shared: crtend_so%O%s;: crtend_android%O%s}}

*link:
%{!r:--build-id} %{!static|static-pie:--eh-frame-hdr} %{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{m16|m32|mx32:;:-m elf_x86_64}                    %{m16|m32:-m elf_i386}                    %{mx32:-m elf32_x86_64}   --hash-style=gnu   --as-needed   %{shared:-shared}   %{!shared:     %{!static:       %{!static-pie:       %{rdynamic:-export-dynamic}     %{m16|m32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-i386.so.1;:/lib/ld-linux.so.2}}}}     %{m16|m32|mx32:;:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld64-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker64;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x86_64.so.1;:/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2}}}}     %{mx32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ldx32-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linkerx32;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x32.so.1;:/libx32/ld-linux-x32.so.2}}}}}}     %{static:-static} %{static-pie:-static -pie --no-dynamic-linker -z text}};:%{m16|m32|mx32:;:-m elf_x86_64}                    %{m16|m32:-m elf_i386}                    %{mx32:-m elf32_x86_64}   --hash-style=gnu   --as-needed   %{shared:-shared}   %{!shared:     %{!static:       %{!static-pie:  %{rdynamic:-export-dynamic}     %{m16|m32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-i386.so.1;:/lib/ld-linux.so.2}}}}     %{m16|m32|mx32:;:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ld64-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linker64;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x86_64.so.1;:/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2}}}}       %{mx32:-dynamic-linker %{muclibc:/lib/ldx32-uClibc.so.0;:%{mbionic:/system/bin/linkerx32;:%{mmusl:/lib/ld-musl-x32.so.1;:/libx32/ld-linux-x32.so.2}}}}}}     %{static:-static} %{static-pie:-static -pie --no-dynamic-linker -z text}} %{shared: -Bsymbolic}}

*lib:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{pthread:-lpthread} %{shared:-lc}    %{!shared:%{profile:-lc_p}%{!profile:-lc}};:%{shared:-lc}    %{!shared:%{profile:-lc_p}%{!profile:-lc}} %{!static: -ldl}}

*link_gomp:


*libgcc:
%{static|static-libgcc|static-pie:-lgcc -lgcc_eh}%{!static:%{!static-libgcc:%{!static-pie:%{!shared-libgcc:-lgcc --push-state --as-needed -lgcc_s --pop-state}%{shared-libgcc:-lgcc_s%{!shared: -lgcc}}}}}

*startfile:
%{!mandroid|tno-android-ld:%{shared:;      pg|p|profile:%{static-pie:grcrt1.o%s;:gcrt1.o%s};      static:crt1.o%s;      static-pie:rcrt1.o%s;      !no-pie:Scrt1.o%s;      :crt1.o%s} crti.o%s    %{static:crtbeginT.o%s;      shared|static-pie|!no-pie:crtbeginS.o%s;      :crtbegin.o%s}    %{fvtable-verify=none:%s;      fvtable-verify=preinit:vtv_start_preinit.o%s;      fvtable-verify=std:vtv_start.o%s} %{fopenacc|fopenmp:crtoffloadbegin%O%s};:%{shared: crtbegin_so%O%s;:  %{static: crtbegin_static%O%s;: crtbegin_dynamic%O%s}}}

*cross_compile:
0

*version:
10.2.1

*multilib:
. !m32 !m64 !mx32;32:../lib32:i386-linux-gnu m32 !m64 !mx32;64:../lib:x86_64-linux-gnu !m32 m64 !mx32;x32:../libx32:x86_64-linux-gnux32 !m32 !m64 mx32;

*multilib_defaults:
m64

*multilib_extra:


*multilib_matches:
m32 m32;m64 m64;mx32 mx32;

*multilib_exclusions:


*multilib_options:
m32/m64/mx32

*multilib_reuse:


*linker:
collect2

*linker_plugin_file:


*lto_wrapper:


*lto_gcc:


*post_link:


*link_libgcc:
%D

*md_exec_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix_1:


*startfile_prefix_spec:


*sysroot_spec:
--sysroot=%R

*sysroot_suffix_spec:


*sysroot_hdrs_suffix_spec:


*self_spec:


*cc1_cpu:
%{march=native:%>march=native %:local_cpu_detect(arch)   %{!mtune=*:%>mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}} %{mtune=native:%>mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}

*link_command:
%{!fsyntax-only:%{!c:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!E:%{!S:    %(linker) %{!fno-use-linker-plugin:%{!fno-lto:     -plugin %(linker_plugin_file)     -plugin-opt=%(lto_wrapper)     -plugin-opt=-fresolution=%u.res     %{flinker-output=*:-plugin-opt=-linker-output-known}     %{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%:pass-through-libs(%(link_gcc_c_sequence))}}     }}%{flto|flto=*:%<fcompare-debug*}     %{flto} %{fno-lto} %{flto=*} %l %{static|shared|r:;!no-pie:-pie} %{fuse-ld=*:-fuse-ld=%*}  %{gz|gz=zlib:--compress-debug-sections=zlib} %{gz=none:--compress-debug-sections=none} %{gz=zlib-gnu:--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu} %X %{o*} %{e*} %{N} %{n} %{r}    %{s} %{t} %{u*} %{z} %{Z} %{!nostdlib:%{!r:%{!nostartfiles:%S}}}     %{static|no-pie|static-pie:} %@{L*} %(mfwrap) %(link_libgcc) %{fvtable-verify=none:} %{fvtable-verify=std:   %e-fvtable-verify=std is not supported in this configuration} %{fvtable-verify=preinit:   %e-fvtable-verify=preinit is not supported in this configuration} %{!nostdlib:%{!r:%{!nodefaultlibs:%{%:sanitize(address):%{!shared:libasan_preinit%O%s} %{static-libasan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -lasan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-libasan:%{!fuse-ld=gold:--push-state} --no-as-needed -lasan %{fuse-ld=gold:--as-needed;:--pop-state}}}     %{%:sanitize(thread):%{!shared:libtsan_preinit%O%s} %{static-libtsan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -ltsan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-libtsan:%{!fuse-ld=gold:--push-state} --no-as-needed -ltsan %{fuse-ld=gold:--as-needed;:--pop-state}}}     %{%:sanitize(leak):%{!shared:liblsan_preinit%O%s} %{static-liblsan:%{!shared:-Bstatic --whole-archive -llsan --no-whole-archive -Bdynamic}}%{!static-liblsan:%{!fuse-ld=gold:--push-state} --no-as-needed -llsan %{fuse-ld=gold:--as-needed;:--pop-state}}}}}} %o      %{fopenacc|fopenmp|%:gt(%{ftree-parallelize-loops=*:%*} 1):     %:include(libgomp.spec)%(link_gomp)}    %{fgnu-tm:%:include(libitm.spec)%(link_itm)}    %(mflib)  %{fsplit-stack: --wrap=pthread_create}    %{fprofile-arcs|fprofile-generate*|coverage:-lgcov} %{!nostdlib:%{!r:%{!nodefaultlibs:%{%:sanitize(address): %{static-libasan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libasan)}    %{static:%ecannot specify -static with -fsanitize=address}}    %{%:sanitize(thread): %{static-libtsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libtsan)}    %{static:%ecannot specify -static with -fsanitize=thread}}    %{%:sanitize(undefined):%{static-libubsan:-Bstatic} %{!static-libubsan:--push-state --no-as-needed} -lubsan  %{static-libubsan:-Bdynamic} %{!static-libubsan:--pop-state} %{static-libubsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_libubsan)}}    %{%:sanitize(leak): %{static-liblsan|static:%:include(libsanitizer.spec)%(link_liblsan)}}}}}     %{!nostdlib:%{!r:%{!nodefaultlibs:%(link_ssp) %(link_gcc_c_sequence)}}}    %{!nostdlib:%{!r:%{!nostartfiles:%E}}} %{T*}  
%(post_link) }}}}}}

Solution

Yes there was a change in behaviour.

In C you are supposed to only define a global variable in one translation unit, other translation unit that want to access the variable should declare it as "extern".

In your code, a.h is included in both a.c and main.c so the variable is defined twice. To fix this you should change the "int test" in a.h to "extern int test", then add "int test" to a.c to define the variable exactly once.


In C a definition of a global variable that does not initialise the variable is considered "tentative". You can have multiple tentative definitions of a variable in the same compilation unit. Multiple tentative defintions in different compilation units are not allowed in standard C, but were historically allowed by C compilers on unix systems.

Older versions of gcc would allow multiple tenative definitions (but not multiple non-tentative definitions) of a global variable in different compilation units by default. gcc-10 does not. You can restore the old behavior with the command line option "-fcommon" but this is discouraged.

Answered By – plugwash

This Answer collected from stackoverflow, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5 , cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0

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